In 1607, a group of merchants, known as the Virginia Company, settled at Jamestown, Virginia on the Chesapeake Bay (Divine, 72); while Puritan leader John Winthrop, stationed himself and his followers at Massachusetts Bay in 1630. 1. He is the author of "The Everything American Presidents Book" and "Colonial Life: Government. In December 1773, Boston was the site of the famous Boston Tea Party in reaction to the Tea Act that had been passed by the British. The first public school in North America, the Boston Latin School, was established in Boston in 1635, and Harvard University was founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636. It was founded by the investors of the Massachusetts Bay Company and its colonists were mainly puritans. Increasing estrangement between the colony and England resulted in the annulment of the company’s charter in 1684 and the substitution of royal government under a new charter granted in 1691. https://historyofmassachusetts.org/history-of-the-massachusetts-bay-colony Other articles where Massachusetts Bay Company is discussed: Boston: Settlement and growth: …by English Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Company, who, for religious and political reasons, put the Atlantic Ocean between themselves and the Church of England. The protracted struggle for supremacy between monarch and Parliament reached new heights in 1629, when Charles I disbanded the rival body and ruled alone for 11 years. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was a colony located near modern-day Boston and Salem Massachusetts. They hoped to purify the Church of England, and then return to Europe with a new and improved religion. Who Founded Massachusetts Bay? The company was founded by English Puritans, most of whom were educated and wealthy. The grant empowering the group to create a colony in Massachusetts was granted by King Charles I to the Massachusetts Bay Company. One of the men who negotiated for this patent, John Endecott, became leader of the colony at Naumkeag (later Salem), founded (1626) by Roger Conant and others from the Cape Ann settlement. Forty-one colonists on board the ship signed the Mayflower Compact, on November 11, 1620. Colony on the Bay: The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established in 1630 and was one of the first English settlements in the New World. Massachusetts played a key role in the American Revolution. Colony As more people moved in, tensions between the Indian tribes and the colonials turned to violence. The Puritans established a theocratic government with the franchise limited to church members. The praying towns roused dissent in the European settlements, and in 1675, the settlers accused the missionaries and their converts of treason. A colony existed in today’s Maine and was named after the then leader George Popham. The Puritans – Massachusetts Bay Colony. Martin Kelly, M.A., is a history teacher and curriculum developer. By this move, they not only paved the way for local management, but they established the assumption that the charter for a commercial company was in reality a political constitution for a new government with only indefinable dependence upon the imperial one in England. It was founded by non-conformists for the purpose of enjoying greater religious liberty. the exact date i'm not really sure. Today, Plymouth colony forms the southeastern part of the State of Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. That same year, Roger Williams (1603–1683) was exiled and ended up founding Rhode Island colony. Later, it was reorganized in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On June 12, 1630, the flagship of the Massachusetts Bay Company arrived in Salem to officially found the new colony. Within a short time, Winthrop and his group had moved, at the invitation of Winthrop's college friend William Blackstone, to a new location on a nearby peninsula. Some of the Massachusetts Bay Indigenous converts supported the colonial militia as scouts and were crucial to the eventual colonial victory in 1678. The colony of Rhode Island was founded between 1636 and 1642 by five separate and combative groups, most of whom had been expelled or left the Massachusetts Bay colony for disputative reasons. While the company was intended to transfer the wealth of the New World to stockholders in England, the settlers … John Winthrop and Deputy Gov. The Massachusetts Bay Colony Government (more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1628–1692) was an English settlement on the east coast of America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.This government laid many of the cornerstones of what would be the official … Massachusetts Bay Colony. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Massachusetts-Bay-Colony, Spartacus Educational - Massachusetts Bay Colony, United States History - Massachusetts Bay Colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Massachusetts Bay Colony - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It reached Salem, Massachusetts, on June 12th. While they emigrated to the New World to be able to freely practice their religion, they did not espouse freedom of religion for other settlers. Why was Massachusetts Bay Colony founded? She went on to settle in Rhode Island and died a few years later near Westchester, New York. In 1629 King Charles I of England granted the Massachusetts Bay Company a charter to trade in and colonize the part of New England that lay approximately between the Charles and Merrimack Rivers, and settlement began in 1630. In the earliest days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Puritans carried out a war of extermination against the Pequots in 1637, and a war of attrition against the Narragansetts. This was the first written governmental framework in the New World. The colony first settled in New Plymouth, a place discovered and named by Captain John Smith (and is now a place in Massachusetts called Plymouth). The government and church were very closely tied together in the Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony . the exact people the putians. Only those who could testify to a “work of grace” in their lives were permitted to choose the governor and the members of the lawmaking council, and those whose religious beliefs did not conform to the Puritans' were expelled. Social Studies. The Puritans established the colony of Massachusetts Bay in 1630. Winthrop himself sailed aboard the Arbella. The Puritans had left England because they didn’t agree with the Church of England and they wanted to practice their own faith. ", Major Events That Led to the American Revolution, Committees of Correspondence: Definition and History, The Founding of North Carolina Colony and Its Role in the Revolution, The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution, Puritan colonist Thomas Hooker (1586–1647), The Puritans' Greatest Achievement: A Study of Social Cohesion in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts, The Antinomian Controversy Did Not Take Place, Colony or Commonwealth: Massachusetts Bay, 1661–1666, The Utopian Legal Order of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630–1686, Red Puritans: The "Praying Indians" of Massachusetts Bay and John Eliot. In 1630 a group of people called Puritans left England for North America. In addition, Puritans believed that churchgoers should read the Bible for themselves, and thus the education of children was required. The charter was revoked in 1684, and two years later all the New England colonies were united into the Dominion of New England. All of the Indigenous peoples professing loyalty to the English were rounded up and placed on Deer Island without adequate food and shelter. Massachusetts means 'at the great hill', or 'large hill place'. Bottom line, the earliest settlements were the Puritans in the Plymouth Colony in 1620. They were more immediately successful , because they came prepared. Among the communities that the Puritans established were Boston, Charlestown, Dorchester, Medford, Watertown, Roxbury, and Lynn. 17. Thomas Dudley. These days, such well-known cities as Boston and Salem are located here. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by religious dissenters who wanted to leave England because of the persecution they were experiencing while Charles I was on the throne.. The General Court was made into a bicameral assembly in 1644. By so doing, they turned a commercial venture into a political one. The lands of the settlement were in southern New England, with initial settlements on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston, north of the previously established Plym… Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The colonists made their living through farming, fishing, and trade. In March of 1644, the Massachuset tribe submitted themselves to the colony and agreed to take religious instruction. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded in 1628. A group of English people wanted to establish a colony in 1607 at Northern Virginia region. The colony was first named "Roodt Eylandt" by Dutch trader Adriaen Block (1567–1627), who had explored that area for the Netherlands. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The war continued for seven more years with many Massachusetts volunteers fighting for the Continental Army. These religious Separatists believed that the true…, …as Virginia, New York, and Massachusetts, where the economy was relatively successful and many people saw little need for such extreme remedies. In summary, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded for religious and political freedom, economic investment, and the promotion of education. The first settlements of Puritans were on two natural harbors. The Puritans who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony intended to set up a society that would accord with what they believed to be God’s wishes. Massachusetts Bay Colony was formed in 1630 by John Winthrop as a safe haven for English Puritan families. The Puritans established the colony of Massachusetts Bay in 1630. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was among the original colonial settlements in the area that is now the United States. Only church members could be part of the General Court. In 1629 the Massachusetts Bay Company had obtained from King Charles I a charter empowering the company to trade and colonize in New England between the Charles and Merrimack rivers. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Signers of the Declaration of Independence from Massachusetts on July 4, 1776, were John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, and Elbridge Gerry. John Winthrop, a Puritan, founded the Massachusetts Colony, naming it as such after an Algonquin tribe. The intention of the crown was evidently to create merely a commercial company with what, in modern parlance, would be called stockholders, officers, and directors. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Puritans who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony intended to set up a society that would accord with what they believed to be God’s wishes. Historian Jonathan Beecher Field has pointed out that what happened to Hutchinson is similar to other exiles and departures in the early days of the colony. The Mayflower carried a mixture of English and Netherlands Separatists, the Pilgrims, to America in 1620. Winthrop, Dudley, the Rev. However, by 1677, the converts who had not been killed, sold into enslavement, or driven northward, found themselves restricted to praying towns that were essentially reservations for people reduced to live as servants and tenant farmers. By 1750, more than 15,000 colonists lived in Massachusetts. A fleet of eleven ships brought hundreds of settlers to Salem. 16. First, the Colony was administrated by England, but later they managed to gain independence. In the 1600’s, two colonies were establishing themselves on the east coast of North America. For example, in 1636, because of religious differences, Puritan colonist Thomas Hooker (1586–1647) took his congregation to found Connecticut colony. Having moved overseas, they continued to omit such extravagances as fine brocades, rich laces, ribbons, and feathers.…. In 1629 the New England Company obtained a royal charter as the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay … In 1630, they renamed their settlement Boston after the town they had left in England. In 1629, a fleet of 12 ships known as the Winthrop Fleet left England and headed for Massachusetts. He wanted to start a colony where the government had more power He was forced out by native Americans He . Questions and answers about the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The majority of the Indians were defeated. It was a colonial endeavor by the English in North America from 1620 to 1691. By the mid-1640s Massachusetts Bay Colony had grown to more than 20,000 inhabitants. Eliot set up "praying towns" in the colony, isolated settlements such as Natick (established 1651), where newly converted people could live separated from both English settlers and independent Indigenous peoples. The Puritan penchant for simpler dress had begun before their departure for America. Though Winthrop's Fleet landed at Salem, they did not stay; the tiny settlement simply couldn't support hundreds of additional settlers. Like many of the early American colonies, the Massachusetts Bay Colony, founded in 1630, has its roots in the search for religious freedom. The siege eventually ended when the British evacuated in March 1776. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded under the principle of religious freedom. It was while he was still aboard the Arbella that Winthrop gave a famous speech in which he said: These words embody the spirit of the Puritans who founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony. A new charter was issued in 1691 that joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, and the Maine Colony as the Province of Massachusetts Bay and placed it under a royal governor. During the first decade of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, several political crises occurred, unfolding simultaneously, concerning the way religion was practiced in the colony. See also Plymouth. The Puritans of England came to Massachusetts in hopes of living free from persecution for their religious beliefs. The 1620s were a time of political and religious turmoil in England. But beginning with the efforts of John Eliot (1604–1690), missionaries in the colony worked to convert the local Indigenous peoples into Puritan Christians. Anti-Federalists also expressed fears—here touches of class conflict certainly arose—that the new government would fall into the hands of merchants and men of money. John Cotton, and other leaders zealously sought to prevent any independence of religious views, and many with differing religious beliefs—including Roger Williams of Salem and Anne Hutchinson of Boston, as well as unrepentant Quakers and Anabaptists—were banished. Parliament reacted by passing acts to control the colony, including a naval blockade of the harbor. The settlements were organized and laid out like an English village, and the residents were subject to a legal code that required that traditional practices be replaced by those proscribed in the Bible. of Plymouth in Massachusetts were, like their counterparts in Virginia, dependent upon private investments from profit-minded backers to finance their colony. Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled in 1630 by a group of Puritans from England under the leadership of Governor John Winthrop. One of those is known as the "Antinomian Crisis" which resulted in the departure of Anne Hutchinson (1591–1643) from Massachusetts Bay. Corrections? Settled by English colonists in 1630, the colony was centered in Boston and Salem and represented the area that blossomed into the state of Massachusetts. King Philip's War broke out in 1675, an armed conflict between English colonists and the Indigenous people led by Metacomet (1638–1676), the Wampanoag chief who had adopted the name "Philip." Boston was made the capital in 1632. A number of battles occurred between 1675 and 1676 called King Philip's War. The charter of 1691 merged the Plymouth colony and Maine into the Massachusetts Bay Colony. By 1640, hundreds more English Puritans had joined Winthrop and Blackstone in their new colony. … Plymouth Colony is also known by two other names: New Plymouth and Plymouth Bay Colony. Why was the Massachusetts Bay Colony so successful immediately? The colony never became as economically successful as the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony and was later merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691. In 1632, Boston was made the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Interesting Massachusetts Colony Facts: The settlers were discouraged and came back to England. After this, the colonists laid siege to Boston, which the British troops held. She was preaching in a manner that proved unseemly to the colony's leaders and was tried in civil and ecclesiastical courts, which culminated in her excommunication on March 22, 1638. Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith.The settlement served as the capital of the colony and developed as the town of Plymouth, Massachusetts.At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of Massachusetts. The grant was similar to that of the Virginia Company in 1609, the patentees being joint proprietors with rights of ownership and government. By moving the Massachusetts Bay Company’s General Court from England to America, the Puritans converted it from an instrument of the company to a legislative and administrative assembly free from royal oversight. The first Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774, and five men from Massachusetts attended: John Adams, Samuel Adams, Thomas Cushing, and Robert Treat Paine. Only those who could testify to a “work of grace” in their lives were permitted to choose the governor and the members of the lawmaking council, and those whose religious beliefs did not conform to the Puritans' were expelled. Question: Why was the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded? The Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by the Puritans, who wanted to create a perfectly religious community, or a 'city on the hill,' away from … Eventually Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth colony joined to become Massachusetts. They hoped to purify the Church of England, and then return to Europe with a new and improved religion. Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled in 1630 by a group of Puritans from England under the leadership of Governor John Winthrop. By a shrewd and legally questionable move, however, the patentees decided to transfer the management and the charter itself to Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded at Boston in 1629. In 1643, the English turned the Narragansett sachem (leader) Miantonomo (1565–1643) over to his enemies, the Mohegan tribe, where he was summarily killed. Many good republicans detected…, …Cavalier; Puritan ideas prevailed in Massachusetts. The Government of Plymouth Colony The government of Plymouth Colony originally ran as a charter government, even though they didn’t officially have a charter from the British government. Updates? Why was Massachusetts founded? 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