Tamil Nadu is divided in to four major divisions as per the ancient Tamil kings namely Pallava Nadu division, Chera Nadu division, Chola Nadu division and Pandya Nadu division and the four divisions are further subdivided into 38 districts, which are listed below. The location was selected because of its nearness to the equator like the Sriharikota spaceport in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.[201]. [144] The first silent film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916. Kanchan Sinha, Kartikeya in Indian art and literature, Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan (1979). According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries. Eid ul-Fitr, Bakrid, Milad un Nabi, Muharram are celebrated by Muslims whereas Christmas, Good Friday, Easter are celebrated by Christians in the state. It has the largest number of International Airports along with Kerala. Tamil Nadu Uniformed Service Recruitment Board (TNUSRB) has invited applications from candidates for TN Police Constable Recruitment 2020 – 21. Law enforcement in India is a State matter. [33], These rulers sponsored some of the earliest Tamil literature. Police officers may enter the IPS by two different routes: Each State Government's Home Department is responsible for its State Police force. [170] In 2003–2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of eggs, which was the second-highest in India representing 9.37 per cent of the total egg production in the country. Ventar were the chieftains of the three major lineages, viz Cera, Cola and Pandya. Tamil Nadu government is planning to lay 55,000 km of optical fibre cable across the state and provide high-speed internet up to 1 Gbit/s and connect all the corporations, municipalities, town panchayats and village panchayats. Sastri postulates that there was a live connection between the early Cholas and the Renandu Cholas of the Andhra country. [5] Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India, and one of the most industrialised states; the manufacturing sector accounts for more than one-third of the state's GDP. [58] They formed a coalition with Dheeran Chinnamalai and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. The Commissioner of Police is assisted by one to several Joint Commissioners of Police, who usually hold the rank of IGP (or Deputy IGP). [158] The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was ₹72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.[159]. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns Nungambakkam tennis stadium which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments. Region: Headed by an IPS Additional Commissioner of Police (Addl. Tamil Nadu provided a significant number of freedom fighters to the Independence struggle such as V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Bharatiyar. [38] During their rule, Samanar traditions greatly impacted literature written during this time. [127] The Sangam literature also deals with human relations and emotions. [119], Tamil written literature has existed for over 2,000 years. Tamil Nadu (Tamil: [ˈtamiɻ ˈnaːɽɯ] (listen)) is a state in southern India. They were mentioned on the pillars of Ashoka. [71] Tamil Nadu is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: northeast, northwest, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Kaveri Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone). [107], Distribution of languages in Tamil Nadu[4], Tamil is the sole official language of Tamil Nadu while English is declared an additional official language for communication purposes. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district, and urban-rural disparities. [73] The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Banwarilal Purohit,[74] Edappadi K. Palaniswami[75] and Sanjib Banerjee[76] respectively. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The Sangam literature collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous. [147], There are more than 30 television channels of various genres in Tamil. Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. [39] Around the 7th century CE, the Kalabhras were overthrown by the Pandyas and Cholas,[40] who continued to patronize Buddhists and Jains before the Saiva and Vaishnava revivalism in the Bhakti movement. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979. [92][93] Chennai is also the sixth-most populous city in India according to the 2011 Indian census. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network. [55] She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of Sivaganga was murdered at Kalayar Kovil temple by British. In 1916 Dr. T.M. Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry nicknamed as "Kollywood", which released the most number of films in India in 2013. [128] The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. Nirupama Vaidyanathan, the first Indian women to play in a grand slam tournament also hails from the state. Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from ₹76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to ₹207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006–07 according to NASSCOM[188] and to ₹366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according to STPI. According to estimates, about 50 per cent of the human resources required for the IT and ITES industry was being sourced from the state. Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, sol, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. [108] As of 2001 census Tamil is spoken as the first language by nearly 90 per cent of the state's population followed by Telugu (5.65%), Kannada (1.67%), Urdu (1.51%), Malayalam (0.89%).[4]. [215] Kamuthi Solar Power Project was commissioned by Adani Power in Kamuthi, Ramanathapuram district. The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by its opponents. land of the Dravidians) during discussions of the partition of India. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen, fungi, algae, and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu. The state government owns Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers,[185] in Karur. Rajendra Chola's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, Philippines[48] in South East Asia and Pegu islands. The Cheras controlled the western part of Tamilkam, what is today western Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Tamil Nadu Police ranks 2nd to CoVid infection next to Maharashtra: CoronaVirus second wave started all over Tamil Nadu this week urging the need to lock travelling within districts inside the zone.More than 1000 police officers in Tamil Nadu acquired the pandemic illness as per the Tamil Nadu Health and Public Hygiene Department report. During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. The reason for the victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India. The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of hockey in the state. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Kaveri. In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at ₹351.86/month for rural areas and ₹547.42/month for urban areas. Zone: Each region is divided into a number of zones, each headed by a. Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. The total cultivated area in the state was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10. [183], Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. [174] Coimbatore is often referred to as the "Manchester of South India" due to its cotton production and textile industries. [175] Tirupur is the country's largest exporter of knitwear. To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The Board will recruit candidates for Constable, Jail Warder, and other posts. [150][151] Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable. Tamil Nadu ranks second in manual scavenging deaths, activists say real figure higher. [64][65] Lakshmi Sahgal from Tamil Nadu was a prominent leader in the INA's Rani of Jhansi Regiment. Successful candidates are gazetted with the rank of. The state also accounts for 50 per cent of leather exports[180][181] from India, valued at around US$3.3 billion of the total US$6.5 billion from India. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through the Palk Strait in the Indian Ocean. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II and III. As a breakaway faction of the DMK. The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. [98][97], The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy rate 80.33 per cent. [132] The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities – is often quoted with reference to this festival. The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the southwest of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. Below the JCPs, the organisation is typically as follows: The general organisation outside commissionerates is as follows: However, District Superintendents or Senior Superintendents of Police are not empowered with the powers of an executive magistrate, in Districts these powers, like promulgating Section 144, granting arms licenses, are exercised by the District Magistrate, who is an IAS officer. 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